Sodium Phenylbutyrate

Please review the following sodium phenylbutyrate studies showing the depth of research that has taken place since the 1980s.

Baarine M, Ragot K, Genin EC, Hajj HE, Trompier D, Andreoletti P, Ghandour MS, Menetrier F, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Savary S, Lizard. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial status of two murine oligodendrocytic cell lines (158N,158JP): potential models or the study of peroxisomal disorders associated with dysmyelination processes. J Neurochem Oct 2009;111(1):119-31

Brose RD, Shin G, McGuinness MC, Schneidereith T, Purvis S, Dong GX, Keefer J, Spencer F, Smith KD. Activation o the stress proteome as a mechanism for small molecule therapeutics. Hum Mol Genet Oct 2012 1;21(19):4237-52.

Girard S, Bruckert E, Turpin G. Endocrine disease in adrenoleukodystrophy. Ann Med Intern (Paris) Feb 2001;152(1):15-26.

Gondcaille C., Depreter M. Fourcade S., Lecca M.R., Leclercq S., Martin P.G.P., Pineau T., Cadepond F., ElEtr M., Bertrand N., Beley A., Duclos S., De Craemer D., Roels F., Savary S., Bugaut M., Phenylbutyrate up-regulates the adrenoleucodystrophy-related gene as a nonclassical peroxisome proliferator. The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 169, No. 1, 93-104, April 2005.

McGuinness MC, Zhang HP, Smith KD Evaluation of pharmacological induction of fatty acid beta-oxidation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Mol Genet Metab Sept-Oct 2001;74(1-2):256-63

Wei H., Kemp S, McGuinness MC, Moser AB, Smith KD. Pharmacological induction of Peroxisomes in Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders. Ann Neurol, 47:286-296. 2000.

Burzynski, S.R. Aging: gene silencing or gene activation? Med Hypotheses 2005: 64 (1): 201-208

Kang H-L., Benzer S., Min K-T. Life extension in Drosophila by feeding a drug. PNAS Jan 22, 2002, Vol. 99 No. 2, (838-843).

Wagner, G. Towards a life prolonging pill? Small molecules with anti-ageing properties. Current Drug Targets 2006: 7 (11): 1531-1537

Barbero-Camps E, Fernandez A, Baulies A, Martinez L, Fernandez-Checa J, Colell A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates amyloid ß neurotoxicity via mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking. Am J Pathol July 2014;184(7):2066-81

Corbet, G., Roy A., Pahan K. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Enhances Astrocytic Neurotrophin Synthesis via Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Activation of cAMP-esponse Element-binding Protein (CREB) Implications for Alzheimer Disease Therapy. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2013

Cuadrado-Tejedor M, Garcia-Osta A, Ricobaraza A, Oyarzabal J, Franco R. Defining the mechanism of action of 4-phenylbutyrate to develop a small-molecule-based therapy for Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Med Chem 2011;18(36):5545-53.

Cuadrado-Tejefor, M., Ricobaraza A., Torrijo R., Franco R., Garcia-Osta, A., Phenylbutyrate is a

dendritic spine loss associated with memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

Hippocampus.2012 May: 22(5):1040-50.doi: 10.1002/hipo.20883.Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Liu N, Qiang W, Kuang X, Thuillier P, Lynn WS, Wong Paul KY. The peroxisome proliferator phenylbutyric acid (PBA) protects astrocytes from ts1 MoMuLV-induced oxidation cell death. J Neurovirol Aug 2002;8(4):318-25

Multifaceted Drug that Exerts Neuroprotective Effects and Reverses the Alzheimer’s Disease-like Phenotype of a Commonly Used Mouse Model. Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol.19, No. 28, pp. 5076-5084(9). November 28, 2013

Osta, A. Phenylbutyrate Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit and Reduces Tau Pathology in an Alzheimer’s disease Mouse Model. Neuropsychopharmacology January 14, 2009;doi:10.1038/nnp.2008.229

Ricobaraza A., Cuadrado-Tejefor M., Marco S., Perez-Otano I., Garcia-Osta A. Phenylbutyrate rescues

Ricobaraza, A., Cuadrado-Tejedor, M., Pérez-Mediavilla, A., Frechilla, D., Del Río, J., García-


Begam M, Abro VM, Mueller AL, Roche JA. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate reduces myofiber damaabe in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab Oct 2016;41(10):1108-1111

Hayashi G, Labelle-Dumais C, Gould DB. Use of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate to define therapeutic parameters for reducing intracerebral hemorrhage and myopathy in Col4a1 mutant mice. Dis Model MechJul 2018;11(7):dmm034157

Nogalska, A., D’Agostine, C., Engel, W.K., Askanas, V. Sodium Phenylbutyrate reverses lysosomal dysrunction and decreases amyloid-β42 in an in vitro-model of inclusion-body myositis. Neurobiology of Disease, Volume 65, Pages 93-101, May 2014.

Bruijn LI, Cudkowizc, M. Therapeutic targets for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Current treatments and prospects for more effective therapies. Expert Rev Neurother 2006: 6 (3): 417-428.

Carri, MT, Grignaschi, G, Bendotti, C. Targets in ALS: designing multidrug therapies. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2006; 27 (5): 267-273.

Corman A, Jung B, Häggblad, Bräutigam, Lafarga V, Lindemalm L, Hühn, Carreras-Puigvert J, Fernandez-Capetillo O. A Chemical Screen Identifies Compounds Limiting the Toxicity of C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeats. Cell Chem Biol. Feb 2019;26(2):235-243.e5.

Cudkowicz, M.E., Aneres, P.L., et al. Macdonald, S.A., et al. Phase 2 study of sodium Phenylbutyrate in ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2009; 10(2):99-106

Cudkowicz, ME, Andres, PL, Choudry, R, MacDonald, SA, Zhang, H, Schoenfeld, D, Ferrante, RJ. Safety and dose escalating study of oral sodium phenylbutyrate in subjects with ALS Neurology 2007; 68 (12, Suppl. 1): A90.

Del Signore, S.J., Amante, D.J., Kim, J., Stack, E.C., Goodrich, S., Cormier, K., Smith, K., Cudkowicz, M.E., Ferrante, R.J. Combined riluzole and sodium phenylbutyrate therapy in transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Volume 10,, Issue 2, April 2009.

DiBernardo, A.B., Cudkowicz, M.E. Translating preclinical insights into effective human trials in ALS. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1762 (2006) 1139-1149.

Petri S., Kiaei M., Kipiani K., Chen J., Calingasan N.Y., Crow J.P., Beal M.F., Additive neuroprotective effects of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a catalytic antioxidant in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiology of Disease 22, 40-49 (2006).

Ryu H, Smith K, Camelo S.I., Carreras I., Lee J., Iglesias A.H., Dangond F., Cormier K.A., Cudkowicz M.E., Brown Jr. R.H., Ferrante R.J. Sodium phenylbutyrate prolongs survival and regulates expression of anti-apoptotic genes in transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Journal of Neurochemistry, 2005, 93, 1087-1098.

Scott, S, Kranz, JE, Cole, J, Lincecum, JM, Thompson, K, Kelly, N, Bostrom, A, Theodoss, J, Al-Nakhala, BM, Vieira FG, Ramasubbu, J, Heywood, JA. Design, power and interpretation of studies in the standard murine model of ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2008; 9 (1): 4-15.

Traynor BJ, Bruijn L, O’Neill F, Fagan G, Cudkowicz ME. Neuroprotective agents for clinical trials in ALS: a systematic assessment. Neurology 2006; 67(1):20-27

Traynor, BJ, Bruijn, L, Conwit, R, Beal, F, O’Neill, G, Fagan, SC, Cudkowicz, ME. Neurology 2006; 67 (1): 20-27.

Almeida, A., Murakami, Y., Baker, A., Maeda, Y., Roberts, I., Kinoshita, T., Layton, DM, Karadimitria, A. Targeted Therapy for Inherited GPI Deficiency. The New England Journal of Medicine 2007; 356:1641-7

Tveten K, Holla OL, Ranheim T, Berge KE, Leren TP, Kulseth MA. 4-Phenylbutyrate restores the functionality of a misfolded mutant low-density lipoprotein receptor. FEBS J 2007;274(8):1881-1893.

TvetenK, Holla OL, Renheim T, Berge KE, Leren TP, Kulseth MA. Rescue of the low density lipoprotein receptor 2A mutant G544V by 4-Phenylbutyrate. Molecular chaperones and the heat shock response 2006;187.

Al-Keilani MS, Alzoubi KH, Jaradat SA. The effect of combined treatment with sodium phenylbutyrate and cisplatin, erlotinib or gefitinib on resistant NSCLC cells. Clin Pharmacol Oct 2018;10:135-140

Ammerpohl, O; Trauzold, A; Schniewind, B; Griep, U; Pilarsky, C; Grutzmann, R; Saeger, H-D; Janssen, O; sipos, B; Kloppel, G; Kalthoff, H. Complementary effects of HDAC inhibitor 4-PB on gap junction communication and cellular export mechanisms support restoration of chemosensitivity of PDAC cells. Br J Cancer 2007; 96(1):73-81.

Appelskog I.B., Ammerpohl O., Svechnikova I.G., Lui W-O., Almqvist P.M., Ekström T.J. Histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate suppresses GAPDH mRNA expression in glioma cells. International Journal of Oncology 24:1419-1425, 2004.

Asklune, T., Appelskog I.B., Ammerpohl O., Ekstron T.J., Almqvist, P.M. Histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate modulates glial fibrillary acidic protein and connexin 43 expression, and enhances gap-junction communication in human glioblastoma cells. European Journal of Cancer, 2004 Vol 40, No. 7.

Baker M J, Brem S, Daniels S, Sherman B, Phuphanich S. Complete response of a recurrent, multicentric malignant glioma in a patient treated with phenylbutyrate. J Neuro-Oncology; 59:239-242, 2002.

Belinsky S.A., Klinge D.M., Stidley C.A., Issa J-P., Herman J.G., March T.H., Baylin S.B., Inhibition of DNA Methylation and Histone Deacetylation Prevents Murine Lung Cancer. Cancer Research (63) 7089-7093, November 1, 2003.

Belinsky S.A., Silencing of genes by promoter hypermethylation: key event in rodent and human lung cancer. Carcinogenesis Vol. 26, No. 9 (1481-1487) 2005.

Berg S., Serabe B., Aleksic A., Bomgaars L., McGuffey L., Dauser R., Durfee J., Nuchtern J., Blaney S. Pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid penetration of phenylacetate and phenylbutyrate in the nonhuman primate. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 47: 385-390. February 2001.

Beyer, SJ; Kulp, SK; Baird, M; Auer, H; Kornacker, K; Chen, C-S; Beer, DG; Kresty, LA. The effects of a phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC-42) on acid-induced gene expression patterns of SEG-1 human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2006; 47:1128-1129.

Boivin A-J., Momparler L.F., Hurtubise A., Momparler R.L.. Antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine and phenylbutyrate on human lung carcinoma cells. Anti-Cancer Drugs. Vol 13 (869-874) 2002.

Brock, MV. Clinical aspects of molecular biology for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer. Esophagus 2006; 3(3):91-94.

Burkitt, Kyunghee and Ljungman, Mats. Phenylbutyrate interferes with the Fanconi anemia and BRCA pathway and sensitizes head and neck cancer cells to cisplatin. Molecular Cancer 7:24, March 2008.

Burzynski, SR, Lewy, RI, Weaver, R, Janicki, T, Jurida, G, Khan, M, Larisma, CB, Paszkowiak, J, , Szymkowski, B. Long-Term Survival and Complete Response of a Patient With Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Brain Ctem Glioblastoma Multiforme. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 3(3); 2004 pp. 257-261.

Calvaruso G, Carabillo M, Guiliano M, Lauricella M, D’Anneo A, Vento R, Tesoriere G. Sodium phenylbutyrate induces apoptosis in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells: The effect of combined treatment with the topoisomerase I-inhibitor topotecan. Int. Journal of Oncology 18: 1233-1237, 2001.

Caraway, HE; Gore, SD. Addition of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination therapy. J. Clin Oncol 2007; 25(15):1955-1956.

Carducci MA, Gilbert J, Bowling MK, Noe D, Eisenberger MA, Sinibaldi V, Zabelina Y, Chen TL, Grochow LB, Donehower RC. A Phase I clinical and pharmacological evaluation of sodium phenylbutyrate on an 120-h infusion schedule. Clin Cancer Res. 7(10):3047-55, Oct 2001

Chang T-H, Szabo E., Enhanced Growth Inhibition by Combination Differentiation Therapy with Ligands of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-y and Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase in Adenocarcinoma of the Lung. Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 8, 1206-1212, April 2002.

Chen WQ, Feng FL, Gu HB, et al. Effect of sodium phenylbutyrate on the apoptosis of human tongue squamous cancer cell line and expression of p21 and surviving genes. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, July 2010; 45(7):416-20

Christov, K; Grubbs, C; Juliana, M; Luber, R. Correlation of the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of agents in the methylnitrosourea (MNU) mammary cancer model with changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis following short-term treatment. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2007; 48:997.

Christov, K; Grubbs, C; Lubet, R; Altered cell proliferation and apoptosis as biomarkers for identifying preventive/therapeutic agents against chemically induced mammary cancers. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2006; 100(Suppl. 1):S58.

Christov, Konstantin, Grubbs, Clinton J; Shilkaitis, Anne, Juliana, M Margaret; Lubet, Ronald A. Short-term modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis and preventive/therapeutic efficacy of various agents in a mammary cancer model. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13(18 Part. 1):5488-5496.

Chung, Yih-Lin, Wang, Ae-June, Yao, Lin-Fen, Antitumor Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress cutaneous radiation syndrome: Implications for increasing therapeutic gain in cancer radiotherapy. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2004; 3(3):317-325

Clarke K.O., Ludeman S.M., Springer J.B., Colvin O.M., Lea M.A., Harrison L.E. Exposure to a deuterated analogue of Phenylbutyrate retards S-phase progression in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 4, April 2002.

Claus, R; Router, B, Loubbert, M. Targets of epigenetics therapy-Gene reactivation as a novel approach in MDS treatment. Cancer Treat Rec 2007; 33(Suppl. 1):S47-S52.

Cortez, CC; Jones, PA. Chromatin,cancer and drug therapies. Mutat Res-Fundam Mol Mech Mutagen 2008;647(1-2):44-51.

Cosentini E, Haberl I, Pertschy P, Teleky B, Mallinger R, Baumgartner G, Wenzl E and Hamilton G. The differentiation inducers phenylacetate and phenylbutyrate modulate camptothecin sensitivity in colon carcinoma cells in vitro by intracellular acidification. International Journal of Oncology 19: 1069-1074, 2001

Cunha De Santis , G; de barros Tamarozzi, M; Sousa, RB; Moreno, Se; Secco, D; Garcia, AB; Lima, ASG; Faccioli, LH; Falcoao, RP; Cunha, FQ; Rego, EM. Adhesion molecules and Differentiation Syndrome: phenotypic and functional analysis of the effect of ATRA, As203, phenylbutyrate, and G-CSF in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Haematologica 2007; 92(12):1615-1622.

D-C Zhou, Kim SH, Ding W, Schultz C, Warrell R P, Jr, and Gallagher R E. Frequent mutations in the ligand-binding domain of PML-RAR after multiple relapses of acute promyelocytic leukemia: analysis for functional relationship to response to all-trans retinoic acid and histone deacetylase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Blood, Feb 2002; 99: 1356 – 1363.

De-shum, Pan, Wei-qiang, Chen. The effects of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) on the expression of p21 and survivine genes on human tongue squamous cancer cell line Tca8113. Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin, February 2010

Du H-L., Qi Y., Shi Y-J., Bu D-F., Wu S-L. Apoptosis and Re-expression of p16 Gene in the Myeloma Cell Line U266 Induced by Synergy of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor and Demethylating Agent.  Chinese Journal of Cancer, 2002, 21(10):1057-1061.

Dyer E.S., Paulsen M.T., Markwart S.M., Goh M., Livant D.L. and Ljungman M. Phenylbutyrate inhibits the invasive properties of prostate and breast cancer cell lines in the sea urchin embryo basement membrane invasion assay. Int. J. Cancer: 101, 496-499 (2002).

Emionite L., Galmozzi F., Grattarola M., Boccardo F., Vergani L, Toma S., Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance Retinoid Response in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Anticancer Research 24: 4019-4024 (2004).

Entin-Meer, M; Rephaeli, A; Yang, X; Nudelman, A; Haas-Kogan, DA. AN-113, a novel prodrug of 4-phenylbutyrate with increased anti-neoplastic activity in glioma cell lines. Cancer Lett 2007; 253(2):205-214.

Estey, E. New drugs in acute myeloid leukemia. Seminars in Oncology 2008;35(4):439-448.

Fadeev NP, Kharisov RI, Kovan’ko EG, Pustovalov YI. Study o Antitumor Activity of Sodium Phenylbutyrate, Histon Deacetylase Inhibitor on Ehrlich Carcinoma Model. Bull Exp Biol Med Sep 2015;159(5):652-4

Feinman R., Clarke, K.O., Harrison LE. Phenylbutyrate-Induced Apoptosis is Associated with Inactivation of Nf-кB in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (2002) 49:27-34.

Finzer P., Stöhr M., Seibert N., Rösl F., Phenylbutyrate inhibits growth of cervical carcinoma cells independent of HPV type and copy number J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (2003) 129:107-113.

Fouladi, M. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Cancer Investigation 2006;24(5):521-527.

Galm, O; Herman, JG; Bbaylin, SB. The fundamental role of epigenetics in hematopoietic malignancies. Blood Rev 2006;20(1):1-13.

Gao, J; Ruan, X; Pan, X; Xu, F; Lei, D; Liu, D. The effect of sodium phenylbutyrate to agents used in induction chemotherapy on laryngeal carcinoma cells Hep-2 in vitro. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 2005; 19(15):680-682.

Gao, J; X-y; Xu F-I; Liu D-y; Lei D-p. Effects of sodium phenylbutyrate alone or in combination with fluorouracil or cisplatin on laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line. Zhongguo Xinyao yu Linchuang Zazhi 2005; 24(10):778-781.

Garcia-Manero, G; Issa, J-P. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: A review of their clinical status as antineoplastic agents. Cancer Investigation 2005;23(7):635-642.

Gilbert J, Baker SD, Bowling MK, Grochow L, Figg WD, Zabelina Y, Donehower RC, Carducci MA: A Phase I Dose Escalation and Bioavailability Study of Oral Sodium Phenylbutyrate in Patients with Refractory Solid Tumor Malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 7: 2292-2300, 2001.

Goh M., Chen F., Paulsen M.T., Yeager A.M., Dyer E.S., Ljungman M. Phenylbutyrate Attenuates the Expression of Bcl-XL, DNA-PK, Caveolin-1, and VEGF in Prostate Cancer Cells1. Neoplasia Vol. 3, No. 4, 2001, pp. 331-338.

Gore SD, Weng LJ, Zhai S, Figg WD, Donehower RC, Dover GJ, Grever M, Griffin CA, Grochow LB, Rowinsky EK, Zabalena Y, Hawkins AL, Burks K, Miller CB: Impact of the Putative Differentiating Agent Sodium Phenylbutyrate on Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 7: 2330-9, 2001

Gore SD, Weng LJ, Zhai S, Figg WD, Donehower RC, Dover GJ, Grever M, Griffin CA, Grochow LB, Zabalena Y, Hawkins AL, Burks K and Miller CB. Impact of prolonged infusions of the Putative Differentiating Agent Sodium Phenylbutyrate on Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 8, 963-970, April 2002

Gore, SD; Baylin, S; Sugar, E; Carraway, H; Miller, CB; Carducci, M; Grever, M; Galm, O; Dauses, T; Karp, JE; Rudek, MA; Zhao, M; Smith, BD; Manning, J; Jiemjit, A; Dover, G; Mays, A; Zwiebel, J; Murgo, A; Weng, L-J; Herman, JG. Combined DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibition in the treatment of myeloid neoplasms. Cancer Res 2006; 66(12):6361-6369.

Gore, SD;, Jiemjit, A; Silverman, LB; Aucott, T; Baylin, S; Carraway, H; Douses, T; Fandy, T; Herman, J; Karp, JE; Licht, JD.; Murgo, AJ.; Odchimar-Reissig, R; Smith, BD; Zwiebel, JA.; Sugar, E. Cimbined methyltransferase/Histone deacetylase inhibition with 5Azacitidine and MS-275 in patients with MDS, CMMoL and AML: Clinical response, Histone Acetylation and DNA damage. Blood 2006; 108(11, part 1):156A-157A.

Gore, SD. Do histone deacetylase inhibitors have a place in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes? Leukemia Research 2007; 31(Suppl. 1):S21.

Gray S.G., Iglesias A.H., Teh B.T., Dangond F., Modulation of Splicing Events in Histone Deacetylase 3 by Various Extracellular and Signal Transduction Pathways Gene Expression, Vol. 11, pp. 13-21. Oct. 2002.

Gray S.G., Quian C.-N., Furge K., Guo X., The B.T., Microarray profiling of the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on gene expression in cancer cell lines. Int. J of Onc. 24:773-795, 2004.

Hao, C-I; Tang, K-j; Chen, S, Xing, H-y; Wang, M; Wang, J-x. 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine enhances differentiation and apoptosis induced by phenylbutyrate in Kasumi-1 cells. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2005;27(3):148-151.

Hattori, Y; Fukushima, M; Maitani, Y. Non-viral delivery of the connexin 43 gene with histone deacetylase inhibitor to human nasopharyngeal tumor cells enhances gene expression and inhibits in vivo tumor growth. Int J Oncol 2007;30(6):1427-1439.

Holm, E; Schade, I. Effects of short-chain and saturated long-chain fatty acids on tumor growth-in vitro and experimental in vivo effects. Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin 2008;33(5):225-230.

Hurtubise, A; Bernstein, ML; Momparler, RL. Preclinical evaluation of the antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine and different histone deacetlylase inhibitors on human Ewing’s sarcoma cells. Cancer Cell Int 2008;8:16.

Huynh, L; Grant, J; Leroux, JC; Delmas, P; Allen, C. Prediction the solubility of the anti-cancer agent docetaxel in small molecule excipients using computational methods. Pharm Res 2008; 25:147-157.

Jiemjit, A; Fandy, TE; Baylin, SB; Carraway, H; Herman, JG; Gore, SD. Sequential administration of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induces apoptosis with caspase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent synergy. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2007; 48:249.

Jin C., Park J.W., Choi J.W., Kang H., Jin G.B., Choi S.M., Park S.S., Ryu D., Jang L.C. Antiproliferative Effect of Phenylbutyrate in AsPC-1 Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line. Korean J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006 Mar: 10(1):1-9. Korean

Jin X, Wu N, Dai J, Li Q, Xiao X. TXNIP mediates the differential responses of A549 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment. Cancer Med Feb 2017;6(2):424-438

Kennedy C., Byth K., Clarke C.L., DeFazio A., Cell Proliferation in the Normal Mouse Mammary Gland and Inhibition by Phenylbutyrate. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics Vol. 1, 1025-1033, Oct. 2002.

Kikuchi, M., Yamashita, K., Waraya, N., Ushiku, H., Kojo, K., Ema, A., Kosaka, Y., Katoh, H., Sengoku, N., Enomoto, T., Tanino, H., Sawanobori, M., Watanabe. Epigenetic regulation of ZEB1-RAB25/ESRP1 axis plays a critical role in phenylbutyrate treatment-resistant breast cancer. Oncotarget, 7(2): 1741-1753 January 2016

Kim, Y.H., Park, J.W., Lee, J.Y., et al. Sodium Phenylbutyrate sensitizes TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by induction of transcription from the DR5 gene promoter through Ap1 sites in colon Cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2001;25:1813-20

Kouraklis G., Theocharis S. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: A novel target of anticancer therapy (Review). Oncology Reports 15: 489-494, 2006.

Koutsourea, Al; Fousteris, MA; Arsenou, ES; Papageorgiou, A; Pairas, GN; Nikolaropoulos, SS. Rational design, synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the antileukemic activity of six new alkylating steroidal esters. Bioorg Med Chem 2008; 16(9):5207-5215.

Kulp, SK; Chen, C-S; Wang, D-S; Chen, C-Y; Chen, C-S. Antitumor effects of a novel phenylbutyrate-based histone deacetylase inhibitor, (S)-HDAC-42, in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12(17):5199-5206.

L.H. Camacho, J. Olson, W.P. Tong, .W. Young, D.R. Spriggs, M.G. Malkin. Phase I dose escalation clinical trial of phenylbutyrate sodium administered twice daily to patients with advanced solid tumors. Invest. New Drugs, 2007 25:131-138.

Lea, MA; Ibeh, C; Shah, N; Moyer, MP. Enhanced differentiation of colon cancer cells induced by combinations of inhibitors of kinases and of historic deacetylases. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2006; 47:1184.

Lee Sy, Hong EH, Jeong JY, Cho J, Seo JH, K HJ, Cho HJ. Esterase-sensitive cleavable histone deacetylase inhibitor-coupled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for boosting anticancer activities against lung adenocarcinoma. Biomater Sci Nov 2019;7(11):4624-4635

Linz, Uta, Complete response of a recurrent, multicentric malignant glioma in a patient treated with Phenylbutyrate. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 66:251, 2004.

Liu M., Brusilow W.S.A., Needleman R., Activity of the yeast Tat2p tryptophan permease is sensitive to the anti-tumor agent 4-phenylbutyrate. Curr Genet 46:256-268 (2004).

Lopez, CA, Feng, FY, Herman, JM, Nyati, MK, Lawrence,TS, Ljungman, M. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function To Ionizing Radiation. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys, Vol. 69, No. 1, PP. 214-220, 2007.

Lu Q, Wang D-S, Chenm C-S, Hu Y-D, Chen C-S. Structure-based optimization of phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitors. J Med Chem 2005; 48 (17): 5530-5535.

Lu, Y-S; Kashida, Y; Jung, J-H; Chen, C-S; Wang, Y-C; Cheng, A-L; Chen, C-S. In vivo efficacy of OSH-HDAC42, a novel phenylbutyrate-based histone deacetylase inhibitor, in human hepatocellular carcinoma animal models. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2007; 48:169.

Lu, Y-S; Kashida, Y; Kulp, SK; wang, Y-C; Wang, D; Hung, J-H; Tang, M; Lin, Z-Z; Chen, T-J; Cheng, A-L; Chen, C-S. Efficacy of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor in murine models of hepatocellualr carcinoma. Hepayology 2007; 46(4):1119-1130.

Lubbert, M; Claus, R. Epigenetic inactivation of gene expression. New therapeutic targets in hematology. Onkologe 2007;13(1):46-55. [email protected] or [email protected]

Luebbert, M. Combined targeting of the epigenetic silence in leukemia: Cooperating activities of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation inhibitors. Leukemia Research 2005; 29(7):727-728.

Luebbert, M. Which myelodysplastic syndromes patients are candidates for treatment with decitabine. Leukemia Research 2007; 31(Suppl. 1):S20.

Lyon, CM; Klinge, D; Liechty, KC; Belinsky, SA. DNA demethylating agents and a PPA-gamma agonist cooperate to induce apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2006; 47:10.

Lyon, CM; Klinge, D; Liechty, KC; Grimes, MJ; Grimes, J; Thomas, C; March, T; Stidley, C; Keith, R; Belinsky, SA. Rosiglitazone prevents the progression of pre-invasive lung cancer in a murine model. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2007; 48:395.

Mack, GS. Epigenetic cancer therapy makes headway. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2006;98(20):1443-1444.

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